Friday, May 22, 2020

Justify the Means - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 528 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/20 Category Ethics Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Ku Klux Klan Essay Movie Essay Did you like this example? Does â€Å"the end justify the means†? Does â€Å"The end Justify the means†. In the movie, Mississippi Burning, the end justifies the means in a way because when you think about it most of the time there are certain limitations to getting what you want. In the movie the only way to get the Ku Klux Klan to confess and give each other to the police was to trick them and make them think that the Ku Klux Klan was after them. In other occasions around the world at the time it was not always necessary to hurt or kill people just to get what you want. Even though it was not necessary people still did it even though they did not have to (they wanted to). In the Mississippi burning the white people might have thought they had a right to hurt/kill Negro people just because they were scared of them and thought they were better then them. That is still no good reason. Proof of the white people hurt the Negroes and damaging their land, crops, and livestock is at the begi nning of the movie as the credits where going across the screen there was a Negro church burning in the background. Throughout the movie we see that the â€Å"White Knights† are burning down Negro’s homes and barns along with the livestock inside them. All this evidence shows the brutality in Mississippi at that time. There was no reason to kill the three young activists. Especially not the reason that the Ku Klux Klan had (one man was a Negro). Even though the Ku Klux Klan did not have a good reason to do what they did the Federal Bureau of Investigation should still not have done what they did. The end was right but the means were wrong. The Federal Bureau of Investigation should have done what they had been doing but they should have tried a little harder to find someone that would speak to them so they could get the rest of the names. They could have also done what they did and get the weakest link to tell just by interrogation rather than what they had did a nd scared him and his family so bad the he would do anything to not get harmed. What they did was smart but not needed; they could have found a way to do it a different way like offer to reduce jail time and give him protection. They should have stayed with the Federal Bureau of Investigation agent, Ward, tactics and ask around until they found someone who will talk or someone from the Ku Klux Klan that is worried about being arrested. If they had done that instead of fighting back then they would have not made a bad choice. Even though the Federal Bureau of Investigation agent Anderson’s idea to get them to talk was a good one that worked out fine it was still wrong to do that no matter how bad it was that they did. All in all, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s entire entire end methods did work it was not done in a justice way. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Justify the Means" essay for you Create order

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Research Of Second Language Acquisition ( Sla )

INTRODUCTION The research of second language acquisition (SLA) and its theories surged in the twentieth century. At a first glance, the definition of SLA may seem clear, however when analysed further it becomes clear that the subject is a bit more complex. Nevertheless, a good definition of it could be as follows: â€Å"a study of †¦ the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside a classroom.† (Ellis, 1997:3) From the 1940s to the 1960s, a psycholinguistic theory known as behaviourism (stimulus-response), was developed, becoming recognised as a legitimate theory behind SLA. This was a positivist approach towards language learning which involved the interference and transfer between a speaker’s first†¦show more content†¦By providing a theoretical framework, then going on to discuss the arguments for and against the CA hypothesis, a conclusion on its reliability will be drawn. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In order to fully understand the reasons for which the CA hypothesis has fallen into decline, with questions of its reliability in being sufficient in the explanation of errors made by L2 learners, it is necessary to examine other theories behind SLA. Firstly, as aforementioned, behaviourism (and therewith CA) was one school of thought, popularised by B.F Skinner and John Watson. CA is explained in Robert Lado’s Linguistics Across Cultures (1957, p. 2) in which he asserts that those elements that are similar to the [learner s] native language will be simple for him, and those areas that are different will be difficult. By this, Lado meant that errors made in the L2 (by learners) are due to habits which differed from the structures in their L1 and these errors would thus reflect the L1’s structure. However, there is another notable hypothesis which aims to explain the errors made by learners of a second language, that being Larry Selinker’s â€Å"interlanguage† hypothesis. According to Rod Ellis (1997:33), this was coined in recognition of the fact that, although L2 construct a linguistic system that does adopt part of the L1 structure, but is also differs from it and also from the target language. This means that the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why did israel agree to a peace treaty with egypt in 1979 Free Essays

Abstract The Arab-Israeli war of 1948 has no doubt been a subject that has generated intense controversy in historical debate. Historians that have engaged in debate battles over the causes of the Arab-Israeli war have met considerable criticism, often being accused of partisan bias. Authors have also been charged of misuse of history and accused of pursuing an agenda that is either supportive of the Israelis or the Palestinians. We will write a custom essay sample on Why did israel agree to a peace treaty with egypt in 1979? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Given the intense contention that this debate has generated, it is essential to examine the history of the historiography of the Arab-Israeli war. This paper thus explores on the history of the Arab-Israel conflicts from 1948 to the present. It seeks to answer the question: why did Israel agree to a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979Exploring on the historiography of the Arab-Israeli war will help in providing a more complex and fair-minded understanding of the past and aid in preserving at least the prospect of reconciliation between both the Israeli and the Arab community in the future. The paper thus provides a critical exploration on the historiography of the Arab-Israel conflict with the aim of enabling the reader to gain an informed understanding of the contending explanations for the causes of the Arab-Israel wars after 1948. It seeks to address the extent to which the Zionist movement or the Arab community was to blame for the Arab-Israeli war, and to explore on the reasons as to why Israel eventually agreed to sign a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979. 1.0 Introduction The Arab-Israeli war of 1948 has no doubt been a subject that has generated intense controversy in historical debate. Historians who are seeking to know the truth about the Israeli-Palestinian war have met considerable criticism, often being accused of partisan bias. Authors have also been charged of misuse of history and accused of pursuing an agenda that is either supportive of the Israelis or the Palestinians (Shlaim 2000). Indeed the debate about the Arab-Israel war has been made personal, acrimonious and bad-natured. The controversial debate continues to evoke criticism with the ‘new’ and ‘old’ historians engaging in intense debate. The impact that these debates are having on the understanding of the causes of Arab and Israeli war is significant and goes well beyond the academic. Given the intense contention that this debate has generated, it is essential to explore on the history of the Arab-Israeli conflict from 1948 to the present. This will help in providing a more complex and fair-minded understanding of the past and will also aid in preserving at least the prospect of reconciliation between both the Israeli and the Arab community in the future. This paper thus explores on the history of the Arab-Israel conflicts from 1948 to the present. It seeks to answer the question: why did Israel agree to a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979The paper critically explores on the historiography of the Arab-Israel conflict with the aim providing an informed understanding of the contending explanations for the causes of the Arab-Israel wars after 1948. 2.0 History of Arab-Israeli war 2.1 End of British Mandate, 1949 With World War I coming to an end, both the Arabs and the Jews felt betrayed because rather than gaining their independence, the French and the British took control of the region (Fraser 1995). The Palestinian region came under the control of the British as a mandate granted by the League of Nations (Ashton 2007). Britain’s acceptance of Palestine as a mandate was driven by the need to establish a Jewish national home. However, both the Jews and the Arabs were frustrated by ritainactions. When the time for establishing the Jewish state approached, the Arabs voiced their oppositions resulting in the British turning to the UN for help (Ashton 2007). With the mandate failing to satisfy both the Arab and the Jewish community, the UN General Assembly announced their intention to end the mandate and recommended the partitioning of Palestine into three separate areas: Jewish State, Arab state and International zone (Fraser 1995). However, the Palestinians argued that the UN recommendation was contrary to the principle of self-determination. They vehemently opposed the establishment of a Jewish state. On the other hand, the UN recommendation was received by the Zionists with enthusiasm such that the Zionists agreed to implement the proposal regardless of the Arab opposition (Kamrava 2005). With the implementation of the UN partition resolution, the Arab and Jewish conflict grew more intense and raids and counter-reprisals from both communities became more evident. The British mandate came to an end on the 14th of May 1948 (Kamrava 2005). Israel proclaimed their victory of independence in the same day. However, the new state of Israel was on the following day invaded by Arab armies from Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Trans-Jordan (Fraser 1995). Despite their determination, these Arab armies failed to defeat the Israelis. The UN later on in July 1949 persuaded the Arab states to sign separate armistice agreements with Israel, with the exception of Iraq (Sayigh Shlaim 1997). 2.2 Continuing tensions in between 1949 and 1956 A number of issues seem to have plagued the Arab-Israeli relations. Among this was the refugee question. Nearly 725,000 Arabs had to flee from Israel to resettle in the neighbouring Arab territories (Sayigh Shlaim 1997). The Palestinian refugees argued that they had been forced to flee, a claim that was vehemently opposed by the Israelis. In fact, the Israelis argued that refugees had been persuaded by the Arab leaders to flee from Israel. Another issue that is believed to have contributed to the Arab-Israel war was the view that the Israelis had acquired Palestinian property. The Arab leaders thus demanded to be compensated by the Israelis. However, these demands of concessions were rejected by the Israeli community. The search for peace between the Arab and Israeli community was further complicated by the tensions between the former Soviet Union and the United States (Sayigh Shlaim 1997). Israel was viewed by the Arab community as a tool of Western imperialism since Western funds were used to bolster the economy of Israel. At the same time, the Soviet Union offered military and economic aid to many of the Arab states and communist countries. The conflict was further exacerbated by the deployment of a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in Middle East which was set up to patrol the frontiers between Egypt and Israel (Shlaim 2004). 2.3 The six-day war, 1967 However, in 1967, Egypt made certain demands that required the UNEF to exits its territory. They threatened Israel by sending troops to the Sinai Peninsula. They also closed off the Strategic Strait of Tiran as an act of provocation thereby denying the Israeli access to the Red Sea (Shlaim 2004). Such provocative actions prompted Israel to reciprocate by launching an attack against Egypt which spread quickly to Syria. This led to the six-day war that destroyed the Arab armies. After the war, Israel took control over the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip from Egypt; control of the Golan Heights from Syria; as well as the West Bank from Jordan (Kamrava 2005). 2.4 Periods between 1960s and 1970s In between the 1960s and 1970s, the UN passed the Resolution 242 which called for the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Egypt and an end to war (Fraser 1995). The resolution also sought to address the Palestinian refugee problem by calling for a ‘just settlement’, and further called for both the Israel and Arab states to respect their independence and rights to co-exist in harmony and peace (Fraser 1995). In 1973, a further step was made with the passing of the UN Security Council Resolution 338 which ensured that the proposals put forth in Resolution 242 were implemented. 2.5 Yom Kippur war of 1973 However, the Israelis believed that they were more powerful and as such thought that they could maintain the status quo. Determined to regain back the acquired Sinai Peninsula, the Egyptian president – Anwar Sadat – arranged with Syria for a surprise attack against Israel (Kamrava 2005). This attack which was later named Yom Kippur occurred during the holy month of Ramadhan lasting for 3 weeks. It led to the death of many of the Israelis. Despite the surprise attack, Israel soon recovered and seized the offensive against both Syria and Egypt (Kamrava 2005). However, the war finally came to a stalemate when the United Nations, the United States and the Soviet Union intervened. The secretary of state to the US negotiated for an end in conflict between the two Arab and Israeli communities. Finally, Israel agree to withdraw its forces from the Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula (Kamrava 2005) 2.6 Israeli Peace Treaty – 1979 In 1978, a meeting was convened by President Carter at Camp David in Washington DC which was meant to bring together both the Arab and the Israeli community. Convinced by the urgent need to establish a comprehensive and lasting peace, President Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin – Israeli Prime Ministerfinally agreed to sign the peace treaty (Fraser 1995). The treaty was a detailed implementation of the principles agreed upon at Camp David and was indeed an important step to resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict and establishing comprehensive peace across the Middle East (Fraser 1995). 3.0 Traditional Zionist and revisionist versions Whilst there has been a progress towards establishing peace between the Israelis and the neighbouring Arab community, a new kind of war has recently emerged among Israeli historians. The traditional Israeli historians have begun to engage in debate battles with the new historians over the Arab-Israeli conflict, with the later challenging the Zionist rendition of the emergence of the state of Israel. Until the 1970s, the debate on the Arab-Israel conflict was largely dominated by the ‘old’ or ‘mobilized’ history which portrayed Israel as under serious threat and the dominant view that Israel had been forced to enter into a series of wars by its Arabs neighbours (Avi 2001). According to the traditional Zionist version, the British mandate of Palestine ensured the establishment of a Jewish state without opposition from the’ (Shlaim 2004). They also argue that the Arab refugees left of their own accord and that the Arab community had planned to invade and destroy the infant Jewish state. They argued that the political deadlock that ensued was solely caused by Arab intransigence (Shlaim 2004). Such views sought to exculpate the Jewish state from allegations made against it including claims that it had acquired Palestinian property and that it had driven away the Arab refugees from their homes. Ironically, there emerged a group of Israelis that gave intellectual power to the Palestinian argument. In the late 1980s, an array of self-styled â€Å"revisionist† or â€Å"new historians† emerged to debunk what it viewed as a distorted ‘zionist narrative’ (Karsh 1996). Headed by Simha Flapan, Ilan Pappe, Benny Morris and Avi Shlaim; this group of ‘new’ historians offered a radically contrary perspective to that of the â€Å"old† history. They argued that Israel was to a large extent responsible for the Palestinian refugee crisis and ultimately for the raging war that led to the development of the state of Israel and fragmentation of Palestine. The ‘new’ historians hold of the view that Zionism was an aggressive and expansionist national movement and an offshoot of European imperialism that led to the raging Arab-Israeli conflict (Karsh 1996). In an attempt to implicate the Jewish community, the new Historians have concentrated on the short period of war that occurred between 1947 and 1949. Deriding alternative interpretations as old, the ‘new’ historians dismiss the notion of Arab animosity and hostility towards the Jewish community as nothing more than just a Zionist myth (Efraim 2000). They point out that the Jewish acceptance of 1947 UN resolution was merely an act and that the Jewish were not sincere. They have sought to distort archival evidence and fabricated or invented their own image of the Israeli history (Efraim 2000). The fabrication of Israeli history by the â€Å"new† historians has no doubt significantly impacted on the understanding of the causes of Arab-Israeli conflict. The Primary works of most of these authors have made new archival material available to wide audiences. Their work has already impacted on the popular perceptions of the historical roots of the Arab-Israeli war. Their accounts also seem to play a greater part in breaking down the remaining psychological barriers that continue to impede the search for a comprehensive and just peace in the Middle East (Shlaim 2004). Of particular influence is Morris’s ground breaking work. For example, Morris’s analysis of the dynamics and causes of Arab-Israeli war between 1949 and 1956 presents a compendious account of the political motives, the insecurities, military recklessness, moral callousness and tactical miscalculations that characterized the response of Israel to the presence of the Palestinian refugees along its border (Ian 1997). There are other ‘revisionist’ works which have had the same sort of impact and altered the views and understanding of Israeli politics and history. However, Morris’s work has been particularly influential and has formed the basis of most ‘revisionist’ works. Of course, it had long been asserted by experts in the region that there was little truth to the Israeli accounts of the Arab refugee question. Even prior to the 1980s opening of the Israeli archives, it had long been suspected in academic circles that the displacement of Arab refugees primarily lay in the terror of a population panicked into flight by intimidation, bombardments, force evacuations and massacres (Ian 1997). Another important tactic which has more often been employed by most authors is presenting the Arab Israeli war as the heroic struggle for a peaceful Jewish state (Morris 2007). Most authors have presented the Arab-Israeli conflict in terms of â€Å"David† vs. â€Å"Goliath†, comprising of a monolithically hostile Arab world and a resentful, treacherous and powerful British Empire (Morris 2007). However, most of the Israelis have felt outraged by the suggestion that they are conquerors, a perception held by the Palestinians (Shlaim 2004). On the other end, the Palestinians have regarded themselves as victims of the Arab-Israeli war. There is no denying that the debate about Arab Israeli conflict has generated intense controversies with the ‘new’ historians challenging the Zionist rendition of the emergence of the state of Israel. However, the ‘new’ accounts suffer from the lack of robust evidence. For example, there seems to be no truth to the Palestinian view that the Arab refugees had been forcefully evicted by the Israelis. There is also no evidence to prove a Zionist plan to expel the Arab refugees from Palestine nor is there evidence of a pre-war ‘transfer’ thinking and cases of expulsion (Karsh 1999). The Palestinian refugee problem that resulted was inevitable, especially given the history of Arab-Jewish hostility over 1881-1947, their geographical intermixing in a minute country, the depth of Arab animosity towards the Jewish community, the structural weaknesses of the Arab society and the fear of falling under Jewish rule (Morris 2004). 4.0 Conclusion Clearly, the debate on this subject has become highly polemical with views that aim at scoring political points rather than providing an academic understanding of the historiography and the causes of Arab-Israeli war. Historians seeking to pursue the root causes of the conflict have often been accused of partisan bias. Authors have also been charged of misuse of history and accused of pursuing an agenda that is either supportive of the Israelis or the Palestinians. It is obvious that new historians, in their effort to score political points and to suit their contemporary political agendas, have systematically distorted archival evidence and fabricated the Israeli history. The Minor criticisms of the revisionist accounts should not detract the reader from the reality about the Arab-Israel conflict. The â€Å"new† historians will undeniably continue to attach the veracity of the traditional Zionist version with an attempt to fabricate the Israel history. While the debate on the causes of Arab-Israeli conflict remains highly contentious, it is a fact that Egypt and Israel eventually came to terms, ending the conflict that had marred the Middle East for 20 years. Convinced of the urgent necessity to establish a comprehensive and lasting peace in Middle East, Israel eventually agreed to sign a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979. 5.0 Reference Ashton, N., 2007. The Cold War in the Middle East: Regional Conflict and the Superpowers, 1967-73. London: Routledge Avi, S., 2001.The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab world. [Viewed on 26th February 2013] available from http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/153 Caplan, N., 2001. Review article, ‘Zionism and the Arabs: Another look at the new historiography’, Journal of Contemporary History, 36/2, 345-60. [viewed on 26th February 2013] Available on library e-journals gateway. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/261230?uid=2129uid=2uid=70uid=4sid=21101867046207 Dupuy, T.N., 1978. Elusive victory: the Arab-Israeli wars, 1947-1974. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company Efraim, K., 2000. Fabricating Israeli History: ‘the new historians’. 2nd edition. Routledge Eugene R. and Shlaim, A., (eds), 2007. The War for Palestine: rewriting the history of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fraser, T.G., 1995. The Arab-Israeli Conflict, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Ian S. L., 1997. ‘Israeli history: who is fabricating what?’, Survival, 39:3, 156-166 Kamrava. M., 2005. The modern Middle East: A political history since the First World War. London, Berkeley: University of California Press. Karsh, E., 1999. ‘The Collusion that Never Was: King Abdullah, the Jewish Agency and the Partition of Palestine’, Journal of Contemporary History, 34 (4), pp.569-85. Karsh, E., 1996. ‘Rewriting Israel’s history’. Middle East Quarterly, vol. 3 (2) Morris, B., 2008. 1948: A history of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press Morris, B., 2007. ‘Revisiting the Palestinian Exodus of 1948’: In: Eugene R. and Shlaim A. (eds), The War for Palestine, pp. 37-56 Morris, B., 2004. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-49. Yale University Press Rogan, E. and Shlaim, A., 2001.The War for Palestine: rewriting the history of 1948. [Viewed on 26th February 2013] available from http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/219 Sayigh, Y. and Shlaim, A., (eds), 1997. The Cold War and the Middle East. Oxford: Claredon press. Shlaim, A., 2004. ‘The war of the Israeli Historians’. Annales, 59:1 [viewed on 26th February 2012] available from http://users.ox.ac.uk/~ssfc0005/The%20War%20of%20the%20Israeli%20Historians.html How to cite Why did israel agree to a peace treaty with egypt in 1979?, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Uganda Juice Industry Essay Example

Uganda Juice Industry Paper Overview Agriculture and agricultural output are very Important to the Uganda economy. The agricultural Industry Is the largest employer of Ganglands with 75% of the population earning a living from the industry. Food and agricultural raw materials account for 40% of the total exports from Uganda. Additionally, the sector contributes 22. 7% to the Uganda GAP. The large contribution of agricultural products to the Uganda economy has led the government to promote value addition as a means of increasing the value of exports. According to the Uganda Investment Authority (IA), the emend for Agendas organic products Is higher than the supply. This Imbalance presents a high opportunity for export of organic fruit Juice from Uganda. Fruits and farm produce are wasted or sold at very low prices during peak seasons due to inadequate storage facilities and lack of effective processing or preservation techniques, leading to high wastage levels. Juice production not only serves to add value to agricultural export but also serve as a way to prevent wastage of excess fruits. The Juice industry has an opportunity to contribute to the Uganda economy y Increasing the value of the country exports and simultaneously preventing wastage of fruits so high in demand, and creating jobs for Uganda. Industry The Juice making industry in Uganda consists primarily of companies that produce natural fruit juices and companies that produce varying degrees of a mixture of fruit concentrate, fruit flavoring, sugar, and water. Natural Juices in the Uganda market are fruit drinks that consist primarily of Juice extracted fruit flesh or pulp. We will write a custom essay sample on Uganda Juice Industry specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Uganda Juice Industry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Uganda Juice Industry specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The table below shows the two sectors and the Ingredients for their Julies_ Industry Sector Description/Contents Flavored Juices Mixture of fruit juice concentrate, water and sugar Mixture of fruit puree, water, and sugar Mixture of flavoring, water, coloring, and preservatives Fruit Juices Juice extracted from flesh or pulp of fruit. The natural fruit Juices are targeted towards the upper and middle Income segment of the population while the fruit flavored Juices are marketed towards children and the low income segment of the population. The flavored Juice companies are distributed across the country while the natural fruit juice companies tend to be concentrated in the greater Kampala region. A key distinguishing factor of the fruit juice Industry In Uganda Is that companies that make the flavored Juice drinks generally tend to be concentrated In the Informal sector. These companies are usually small, employing between one to six people. The mixing of the flavored juices usually occurs in one of the entrepreneurs homes. The juices are then packed in polythene bags and distributed and sold through roadside kiosks and street vendors. The flavored juice companies are often not able to break into the formal sector because they lack capital to meet the operational and production requirements set y Uganda National Bureau of Standards (NUBS) for Juice producers. The natural luck producers tenant to De larger organizations employing Trot Detente twenty to two hundred people. The Juices are made in factories and then distributed to grocery stores, schools and other vendors. There are a lot of natural Juices that are imported into Uganda. The table below shows the major players in the Uganda Juice market. It is important to note that a lot of the flavored Juice manufacturers are captured in this table because of the informal nature of those companies. Juice Industry Value Chain and Main Processes Fruit Production Fruit production is the responsibility of farmers. In the Uganda market farmers can be classified in two groups: Small scale farmers The majority Uganda farmers fall into this category. These farmers are distributed across the country and grow fruits on relatively small plots (a few acres). Small scale farming is also characterized by a low use of fertilizers, pesticides, and other improved farming techniques. As a result, they suffer from low and unreliable production. In addition the harvesting methods employed by these farmers often lead to damaged and bruised fruits. Commercial Large scale farms The commercial fruit farms own very large areas of land. They use mechanized and technologically advanced processes to cultivate the land for fruit production and as a result are able to obtain very high quality fruits and high yields. Fruit Transportation Once the fruits reach maturity and are harvested they may go to the fresh fruit market, in order to be consumed fresh, or squeezed freshly at home to be consumed as Juice, or it may enter the processing industry, in order to obtain Juice or other by products. Transporters are responsible for getting fruit from the farms to any of actions discussed above. In Uganda there is an abundance of fruit transportation companies, fruit traders, whose sole business is collecting fruits from firms and delivering them to stores, exporters, and food processors. In other cases one will find that many companies have vertically integrated fruit transportation into their businesses. It is not uncommon to find food processors, exporters and wholesalers who buy directly from farmers and manage the transportation of the fruit themselves. Fruit Processing The fruit processors are responsible for converting the fruits into Juice and other by rodents. Fruit Juice processing consists of extraction, filtration, iteration, bastardization and packaging. The fruits are sorted, washed and prepared for extraction. There are several methods of extracting Juice, depending on the type of fruit. The filtration phase involves the isolation of the pulp from the Juice. The third process of iteration is performed to remove the dissolved oxygen. It is done by spraying the Juice into the vacuum chamber or allowing it to flow over a series of baffles (a device for checking or impeding the flow of gases) while subject to a high scum. Oxygen reacts with the Vitamin C causing deterioration of Juice flavor as a result of other chemical reactions. Bastardization is a sterilization process which slows microbial growth in the Juice. Bastardization involves heating the Juice too specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. In the packaging stage clean containers are filled with hot Juice from the pastries. They are then immediately sealed and rapidly cooled. Once packaging is complete ten products are ready to De leverage to ten market. Julie Outlanders Distributors are responsible for delivering the packages Juices from the producer to the retail outlets and in some cases directly to consumers. Like fruit transportation, distribution is another area that is often integrated into the Juice producers business. Fruit Juice is often distributed through wholesalers and exporters. Sales The sales outlets are locations where consumers go to purchase the fruit. In the Uganda context they are primarily retail outlets. The retail outlets that I encountered are: Grocery Stores Gas-Station Convenience Stores Kiosks Street Vendors Customer The fruit Juice industry in Uganda serves both the institutional and household consumers. Suppliers Suppliers to the industry differ for each of the sectors that were defined earlier in this paper. The primary suppliers for the natural Juices are fruit farmers and fruit traders. Suppliers for the flavored Juice sector are the importers of fruit flavors and retailers who sell fruit Juice concentrates. The main supply related challenges for flavored drink producers occur because the main ingredients for their Juices are not produced locally and are imported. The ineffective customs handling of exports often lead to shortages (and associated price hikes) in the supply of concentrates and fruit flavoring. Other than the increase in input prices, the producer may also experience quality/taste degradation. For example a producer may use a particular brand of concentrate in its production process, when the concentrate becomes unavailable the producer now has a choice of shutting down production till the concentrate becomes available or using a different brand of concentrate. A different brand of concentrate results in the product tasting different. For the flavored Juice sector, suppliers are able to exert significant power over the Juice producers because of the producers need to maintain consistent taste for their products. A retailer or importer may choose to raise prices for a unique concentrate or flavor. Fruit Juice companies may chose to buy directly from farmers and incur the cost of transportation from the farmer to their factories or they chose to deal with fruit traders deliver directly to the factory. When dealing directly with farmers the Juice companies are able to extract profits from the farmers but lose some of this advantage to the cost of transportation. With a lot of the farmers being distributed across the country, transportation costs to the Kampala region (where most Juice companies are located) can be quite significant. The following table shows the locations of different fruit farmers. The traders are not able to exert any supplier power on Juice producers because of the large number of traders and relative homogeneity of the service provided. Fruit Location (districts) Pineapple Mask, Kananga, Lower, Waking, Munson, Mumping, Gangs, Kamala Mango Local variety: Lower, Mask, Mumping, Waking, Buddha, Gangs, Kamala, Gull, Lira; improved variety: Massing Passion fruit Yellow variety: Sorority, Mumping; hybrid variety: Mask, Waking, Mumping, Amanita, Sorority; purple variety: Eases, Mask, Mumping, Amanita, Waking Orange Jinni, Kalmia, Gangs, Kamala, Pallid, Kim, Cabinetmaker, sort, serer Barriers to Entry The flavored Juice sector is characterized by very low capital requirements. The low capital requirements combined with the lack of regulatory enforcement ensure that barriers to entry and exit in the flavored Juice sector are very low. Additionally consumers of Juices in this sector are very price sensitive and not concerned about rand loyalty. Entry barriers for the fruit Juice sector are much higher than that of the flavored Juice sector. The reason is because the entry requirements into this sector require high capital investments. In addition to the high capital investments, brand equity may be difficult to build because of customer loyalty to existing brands. Rivalry among existing firms It is difficult to document the number of firms in the Uganda Juice industry because of the ease of entry and exit into flavored Juice sector and because a lot of the firms in the sector operate informally and are unregistered. The table below shows the list of Juice companies selling within the Uganda Market. Company Name Production Sector LEMMA Food (U) Ltd. Domestic Joanna Foods LLC Domestic Fruit Brittany Food Products Domestic Seven Falls Limited PIP Domestic House of Eden (U) Ltd. Domestic Flavored Fruit Both K Enterprises Domestic Flavored Del Monte Foreign Fruit Engage Foreign Fruit Highlands Foreign Flavored Sheehan Foreign Fruit Apparel Agro Foreign Both Shark Group Foreign Fruit Dimes Foreign Fruit Rain Foreign Fruit Martini Kenya Ltd. Foreign Fruit Kettle Foods Kenya Foreign Flavored AY Main National Juice Refreshments Co. (LLC) Foreign Fruit Ribbon Foreign Fruit CERES Foreign Fruit I estimate that there are over a 100 Juice makers who operate informally. The flavored Juice sector is very competitive. Market leaders tend to securing supply contracts for primary and secondary school cafeterias. Compared to the flavored juice sector, there are fewer numbers of companies (all are registered) who compete within the fruit Juice sector. Britannic (makers of Splash Juices) appears to be the market leader based on volumes carried in retail outlets . Despite the few number of coal natural Juice producers, competition is fierce within this sector as there are a lot of imported Juices on the market. There is very little competition between the flavored and a fruit Juice sector as the consumer base for each sector is highly segmented. Mall Players Ana contacts A complete directory of business contacts is attached in the appendix. Industry Fit The table below shows the level of fit for the Juice industry subsection for the common characteristics that PIP is seeking across countries: Priority Characteristic Rationale Natural Juice Companies Fit Flavored Juice Companies Fit Required Many different small firms with 5- 50 employees each Small and medium but not micro enterprises, which will not be big enough to have the same management/labor issues Required Employs relatively low-income or unskilled/semi-skilled workers Want to make sure that Job creation would not be limited to the highly educated or wealthy Preferable A significant role in the Uganda economy, either in terms of employment or GAP Preferable High geographic density of firms To insure that future mentoring interventions will be logistically feasible and affordable

Friday, March 20, 2020

Open Racism Essay Example

Open Racism Essay Example Open Racism Paper Open Racism Paper When I think about is racism still alive today, a particular poem comes into mind its entitled:â€Å"Racism Is Around Me Everywhere†. I do recall There is no such a thing as a fair go for all. Though we live in a so called democracy Of racism we never will be free They judge you by where you come from and the color of your skin For many equality and respect seems impossible to win. Its been awhile since the days of Martin Luther King His name to it has a familiar ring If against racism he did not choose to strive Today the great man he would be alive. So many holding the reins of power not spiritually aware And racism is around me everywhere And racism only leads to division and war Just goes to show how ignorant some are. † (Frances Duggar) | | Racism is a belief held by some that there are characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some racial groups are superior to others. Racism and discrimination have been used as powerful weapons encouraging fear or hatred of others in times of conflict and war, and even during economic downturns. For people throughout the world, the election of Barak Obama to the U. S. presidency seemed to signal in a new era, that of the end of racism. Indeed, Obamas election was a momentous occasion and, one would have hoped, a milestone on the road to reconciliation. However, some recent, very ominous events cast a worrisome veil over the democratic process in the United States. These events points out how racism is still a problem in the United States. Racism occurs often times out of fear. Many people fear what is different to them and what they do not know. This in turn, makes it scary when you see people who look different than you do and sometimes, you treat those individuals differently because you do not know them. Racism occurs in different facets of society. Schools, the government and the workplace are sometimes the worst examples of racism. Racism in schools Millions of African American and Latino young people in the United States don’t get an education equal to that of most whites, partly because the urban schools they go to don’t have as much money as the schools in the white suburbs. This is because the country has decided that much of the money for schools should come from local property taxes. So in communities where the houses and businesses are less expensive, the schools don’t get enough money to provide a high quality education. This is unfair. This is institutional racism. If we financed schools differently every student, regardless of his or her race, could go to a high quality school that was the equal of the schools other students attend. The Government Hurricane Katrina: The government had known for years that a big hurricane was likely to cause dangerous flooding in New Orleans. The plans they made didn’t include any way to get poor people (predominately African Americans) out of the city to safety. When the storm and the flooding did come with Hurricane Katrina in 2005, much of the country saw on TV that thousands of people of color were stranded in the city without food, water, housing or safety. The government was incredibly slow to rescue people, to provide food and shelter, and to help them rebuild their houses. Many people believe that if those stranded had been mostly white people the rescue efforts would have been much quicker and effective. Racism in the Workplace Racism in the form of discrimination persists in society also. A case in point is that blacks have traditionally suffered from higher rates of unemployment than whites. In June 2009, black employment was at 15. 3 % compared to an 8. 8% unemployment rate for whites. Do blacks simply not take the initiative that whites do to find work? Studies indicate that, in actuality, discrimination likely contributes to the black-white unemployment gap. (Thompson) Critics will say how can racism still exists with the election of the United States first black president. Since President Obama took office he has been a rise of subtle racism against our president. It can be seen in the supporters of the new birthers movement, who stir up doubts about Obamas citizenship. During the 2008 presidential campaign, there was no impetus to question John McCain’s birthplace even though it was common knowledge that McCain was born in Panama; because he is white. The president’s birthplace should not have been an issue at all but yet to this day you still have a lot of Americans who still question his birthplace. Critics also say with electing our first minority president, and minorities reaching higher levels of education, obtaining more earnings and more distinguished careers, one might infer that prejudice is dead. I contend that it is alive and flourishing while lurking beneath the shadows of figures that naturally inflate with the growth of a burgeoning society. If racism does not exist then what accounts for â€Å" the wide range of disparities that still exist in society, most of which show black Americans with worse outcomes than whites in areas such as income, home ownership, health and employment, study researcher Samuel Sommers, a psychologist at Tufts University, said in a statement. When most Americans think of racism they think of the open racism back in the Civil Rights movement and during slavery times when crosses were burned in African-American yards. They think of the KKK when they think of racism which was upfront and in your face. The fact that the KKK and groups such as these that still exist prove the point that racism still occurs in the United States. While racism may not be as widespread as before, it exists, without a doubt. While we like to think that those unfortunate days of racism are behind us, it still exists. Today, racism is much less obvious and less prevalent. However, we are still reminded that racism is alive and well, and we must continue working to do away with it. Every day in the news there are stories dealing with the unfair treatment of minorities, women, and gays. America is the best country in the world because of the opportunity given to every individual and because of its constant struggle for equality of all. Any person, of any race, creed, or religion can succeed with hard work and determination. The problem is that the level of those individual’s success is sometimes determined, by the color of their skin. The race for social equality is persistent here, but there are still problems with the system. So, unfortunately racism does still exist today in the United States. References William-White, L. , White, J. (2011). Color Marks the Site/Sight of Social Difference: Dysconscious Racism in the Age of Obama. Qualitative Inquiry, 17(9), 837. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2495960131). William March. (16 May). Researcher: Evidence shows racism in opposition to Obama. McClatchy Tribune Business News,. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 2348227321). Thompson Matthew (2011). Does Racism still exist today? Answers from Men. Retrived December 12, 2011 answersfrommen. com/2011/01/does-racism-still-exist-today/ Mosser, K. (2011). An introduction to logic. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. (https://content. ashford. edu) Pappas Stephanie. (2001) Study: Whites say they are racists’ victims. Retrieved December 12, 2011. cbsnews. com/stories/2011/05/24/scitech/main20065864. shtml http://poemhunter. com/poem/racism-is-around-me-everywhere/ politicususa. com/en/political-racism

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

History of the Plymouth Colony

History of the Plymouth Colony Established in December 1620 in what is now the U.S. State of Massachusetts, the Plymouth Colony was the first permanent settlement of Europeans in New England and the second in North America, coming just 13 years after the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. While perhaps best known as the source of the tradition of Thanksgiving, the Plymouth Colony introduced the concept of self-government into America and serves as the source of important clues to what being an â€Å"American† really means. The Pilgrims Flee Religious Persecution In 1609, during the reign of King James I, members of the English Separatist Church - the Puritans - emigrated from the England to the town of Leiden in the Netherlands in a futile attempt to escape religious persecution. While they were accepted by the Dutch people and authorities, the Puritans continued to be persecuted by the British Crown. In 1618, English authorities came to Leiden to arrest congregation elder William Brewster for distributing flyers critical of King James and the Anglican Church. While Brewster escaped arrest, the Puritans decided to place the Atlantic Ocean between them and England. In 1619, the Puritans obtained a land patent to establish a settlement in North America near the mouth of the Hudson River. Using money loaned to them by the Dutch Merchant Adventurers, the Puritans - soon to be Pilgrims - obtained provisions and passage on two ships: the Mayflower and the Speedwell. The Voyage of the Mayflower to Plymouth Rock After the Speedwell was found to be unseaworthy, 102 Pilgrims, led by William Bradford, crowded aboard the 106-foot-long Mayflower and set sail for America on September 6, 1620. After two difficult months at sea, land was sighted on November 9 off the coast of Cape Cod. Prevented from reaching its initial Hudson River destination by storms, strong currents, and shallow seas, the Mayflower finally anchored off Cape Cod on November 21. After sending exploratory party ashore, the Mayflower docked near Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts on December 18, 1620. Having sailed from the port of Plymouth in England, the Pilgrims decided to name their settlement Plymouth Colony. The Pilgrims Form a Government While still aboard the Mayflower, all of the adult male Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact. Similar to the U.S. Constitution ratified 169 years later, the Mayflower Compact described the form and function of Plymouth Colony’s government. Under the Compact, the Puritan Separatists, although a minority in the group, were to have total control over the colony’s government during its first 40 years of existence. As leader of the Puritans congregation, William Bradford was chosen to serve as Plymouth’s governor for 30 years after its founding. As governor, Bradford also kept a fascinating, detailed journal known as â€Å"Of Plymouth Plantation† chronicling the voyage of the Mayflower and the daily struggles of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony. A Grim First Year in the Plymouth Colony Over the next two storms forced many of the Pilgrims to stay aboard the Mayflower, ferrying back and forth to shore while building shelters to house their new settlement. In March 1621, they abandoned the safety of the ship and moved ashore permanently. During their first winter, more than half of the settlers died of a disease that afflicted the colony. In his journal, William Bradford referred to the first winter as the â€Å"Starving Time.† â€Å" †¦ being the depth of the winter, and wanting houses and other comforts; being infected with the scurvy and other diseases which this long voyage and their inaccommodate condition had brought upon them. So there died some times two or three of a day in the foresaid time, that of 100 and odd persons, scarce fifty remained.† In stark contrast to the tragic relationships that were to come during America’s western expansion, the Plymouth colonists benefited from a friendly alliance with local Native Americans. Shortly after coming ashore, the Pilgrims encountered a Native American man named Squanto, a member of the Pawtuxet tribe, who would come to live as a trusted member of the colony. Early explorer John Smith had kidnapped Squanto and taken him back to England where he was forced into slavery. He learned English before escaping and sailing back to his native land. Along with teaching the colonists how to grow the vitally-needed native food crop of maize, or corn, Squanto acted as an interpreter and peacekeeper between Plymouth’s leaders and local Native American leaders, including Chief Massasoit of the neighboring Pokanoket tribe. With the help of Squanto, William Bradford negotiated a peace treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped ensure the Plymouth Colony’s survival. Under the treaty, the colonists agreed to help protect the Pokanoket from invasion by warring tribes in return for the Pokanoket’s help â€Å"to grow food and catch enough fish to feed the colony. And help the Pilgrims grow and catch the Pokanoket did, to the point that in the fall of 1621, the Pilgrims and the Pokanoket famously shared the first harvest feast now observed as the Thanksgiving holiday. The Legacy of the Pilgrims After playing a major role in King Philip’s War of 1675, one of several Indian Wars fought by Britain in North America, the Plymouth Colony and its residents prospered. In 1691, just 71 years after the Pilgrims first set foot on Plymouth Rock, the colony was merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other territories to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Unlike the settlers of Jamestown who had come to North America seeking financial profit, most of the Plymouth colonists had come seeking the freedom of religion denied to them by England. Indeed, the first cherished right ensured to Americans by the Bill of Rights is the â€Å"free exercise† of every individual’s chosen religion. Since its founding in 1897, the General Society of Mayflower Descendants has confirmed more than 82,000 descendants of the Plymouth Pilgrims, including nine U.S. presidents and dozens of notable statespersons and celebrities. Besides Thanksgiving, the legacy of the relatively short-lived Plymouth Colony lies in the Pilgrims’ spirit of independence, self-government, volunteerism, and resistance to authority that have stood as the foundation of American culture throughout history.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

CRJS 205 Introduction to Criminal Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

CRJS 205 Introduction to Criminal Law - Essay Example Having difference remedies in civil and criminal cases implies different penalties for prospective offenders. In civil cases, a defendant who loses a case if immune from incarceration or a jail sentence as compared to losers in criminal cases. In general, a defendant in a civil case is only required by law to pay compensation to any losses incurred by the plaintiff (Standler, web). Punishments offered by at the civil and criminal level for a similar case should not correlate in any way. The main reason why the two punishments should not correlate is that civil litigations are aimed at restoring the plaintiff to the initial financial position while criminal punishment offers emotional consolation and therefore the two remedies are not related or equivalent. Secondly, in criminal cases the state bears the burden of proof while a plaintiff shoulders the burden of proof in civil cases and the two have different capabilities (Standler, web). Finally civil cases corporate as the defendant while criminal cases have individuals as the defendant therefore available punishments will have different effects on the two